Allah has blessed Pakistan with numerous elements, water is one of those presents. To understand its magnitude it's fundamental to have knowledge on the following:
on the time of independence, their newly formed country had no infrastructure of energy era. there were best small diesel or coal powered generation flora in quite a lot of cities, but to meet the fundamental requirement they were based on India. In 1958 when field Marshall Ayub Khan took over the govt, with all the different vital steps, scarcity of energy was additionally taken as a very critical problem and work on struggle footing changed into began.
As already cited we're blessed with many natural elements, specially water. they have five rivers and number of subsidiaries which may give us sufficient vigour as well as huge water reservoirs for irrigation, if effectively planned. Ayub Khan’s government gave full attention towards this side and started immediate survey for relevant websites for the building of hydropower tasks, water reservoirs/dams, headworks and barrages as soon as he took over the govt in 1958. within a brief length of six months an entire examine became formed pointing out the number of locations and websites the place dams on river Indus and river Jhelum can be developed in addition to websites and areas the place barrages can also be developed on rivers Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej.
first off, they will go in the course of the study on river Indus. in line with the analyze, handiest on river Indus they may construct hydropower tasks, water reservoirs/dams and barrages at fifteen (15) different websites. The look at also printed that there were certain sites that have been more vital and where the development work can be begun with immediate effect. Following this study, two sites on river Indus had been chosen for dams the place they could avail vigor generation facility as well as water reservoirs which would be linked to canals for irrigation purpose. One website was Kalabagh, which was a herbal dam and the other become Tarbela. On river Jehlum, Mangla turned into selected for instant implementation. The different rationale to select these websites turned into that these were well-nigh within the centre of the country from where the charge of electricity distribution network would cost less and the controls could be convenient, secondly, from water reservoirs, water would without difficulty be linked to the canal gadget used for irrigation. In 1959, immediate work was started at Mangla Dam site.
On the other side Tarbela was favorite over Kalabagh. there have been two explanations; one , the charge of Tarbela Dam became higher than the Kalabagh Dam, and fiscal help from the area financial institution become required, whereas can charge of Kalabagh become less and will with ease be meet with with the aid of their personal resources. 2nd intent become political disturbance created by means of Raja George SikandarZaman who became in opposition of Ayub Khan and had a excessive have an impact on in Haripur enviornment where some land have been to be obtained by way of the government. It was determined that as Ayub Khan being in vigor, the americans of the enviornment will cooperate, however afterward when Ayub Khan may not be in energy, this man having excessive affect within the area may be a obstacle in the building of this dam, as well as Khanpur Dam (most effective a reservoir dam), which turned into also constructed all over that point.
So, work on Tarbela and Mangla Dam turned into automatically all started. Mangla turned into to generate 1100 megawatts with a water reservoir of 5.5 million acre feet and Tarbela changed into deliberate to produce 3490 megawatts electrical energy with a water reservoir of 11.09 million acre feet.
expensive readers, earlier than going into further particulars, it's crucial to bear in mind the move of rivers and the areas they fall into every different. starting with river Swat which flows from Kalam to Nowshera for three hundred and sixty five days with a giant volume of water. At Nowshera it falls into river Kabul which is coming from Afghanistan, crossing via Peshawar. From Nowshera these two rivers collectively fall into river Indus at Attock. From Attock bridge, the circulation of those two rivers can easily been seen, Indus in blue shade and the other two in mud colour. They go an extended method aspect by way of facet then ultimately merge into each different.
From Attock to Kalabagh, there isn't any vicinity the place this large quantity of water flowing from three rivers can be saved. Kalabagh is the simplest location where this water can be stored.
From Kalabagh reservoir, water can not most effective be used for technology of electricity however can also be utilised to irrigate the barren areas of KPK, Sindh and Balochistan. The web site of Kalabagh is a natural dam, which may also be developed in an awful lot less time with less charge than a daily dam. it may well store and keep all that water flowing from rivers Indus, Swat and Kabul, which at present is going waste and falls into the Arabian Sea. It’s a sheer negligence of their governments and leaders that when you consider that long they are wasting this present of the nature which can be very useful for irrigation and might also generate electrical energy for the country wide grid. basically, it’s “kufran e namet”.
Bashir A Malik, former chief technical consultant to the United countries and World financial institution, observed, “Sindh and Pakhtunkhwah would develop into drought areas in the years to come back if Kalabagh Dam became now not constructed.” at the equal time, former KPK chief minister and former Chairman WAPDA Shamsul Mulk has mentioned, “Kalabagh Dam can be useful in erasing poverty from Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, because it would irrigate 800,000 acres of cultivable land it truly is found 100–150 ft above the level of River Indus.” The Kalabagh Dam would provide 6.5 million acre ft of water to domesticate seven million acres of at present barren land in addition to the three,600 megawatts (4,800,000 hp) of electrical energy it would supply.
specialists who supported the development of the Kalabagh Dam at the 2012 “shop Water shop Pakistan” forum protected Dr Salman Shah, former finance minister Abdul Majeed Khan, TECH Society President ShafqatMasood, former IRSA chairman Qayyum Nizami, former minister of state Prof Abdul Qayyum Qureshi, former vice-chancellor of Islamia school Bahawalpur Dr Muhammad Sadiq, agricultural scientist M Saeed Khan, former GM of Kalabagh Dam undertaking Engr Mahmudur Rehman Chughtai, Mansoor Ahmed, former MD of Pakistan Atomic power fee basis, Tariq Mushtaq, former KDB assignment head, M. Zubair Sheikh and Jameel Gishkori, amongst others. The contributors of shop Water save Pakistan demanded the construction of 5 dams, including the Munda Dam, Kurram Tangi Dam, Akhori Dam and the Kalabagh Dam, at by using 2025 at the newest to save water and generate electrical energy to satisfy demand.
(A) JUDGMENTAL ERROR by means of KPK:
size of Kalabagh dam reservoir can be 80 km. From there the Nowshera metropolis is 110 km a ways, and if the dam is full to its ends, the height of Nowshera could be 60 ft above that level. So, the story which has been framed by a political birthday celebration of KPK, that Nowshera can be submerged in water and that too within the case of destruction of the dam , doesn't hold any fact and reality in it, somewhat 800,000 acres barren land may be irrigated with the raise within the stage of the river. This area is a hundred-one hundred fifty ft above river level, when the degree of the river is raised, it could be with no trouble irrigated.
(B) SUSPICIONS OF SIND:
around 1,000,000 acres of land in Sind will be irrigated from the water reservoir of Kalabagh-Dam. The politicians and feudals of Sind even have framed a story for their poor and uneducated individuals that if Kalabagh Dam is built, river Indus will don't have any water in movement and sea water will enter internal the river bed, destructive the lands. here is simply a story to confuse the terrible farmers and small land homeowners, in order that they don’t get benefit of water for their fields, which can result them a much better dwelling and instructing their babies. in reality the feudals have a fear that if these americans get education and more advantageous living, feudals gained’t be able to maintain them beneath their thumb, so this kind of experiences are spreaded.
basically, Karachi and Sindh is seven meters above sea level, so there isn't any question of sea water flowing returned into the river. handiest at “delta” the sea water flows in at the time of “Mud-O-Jazr”. Secondly, the bed of the river will now not get dry, as soon as the dam is stuffed, water stream should be in activities and will continue to be because it is flowing now. identical manner, huge enviornment of Balochistan will also get water for irrigation through this dam’s reservoir.
(C) INDIAN INTRUSION:
Indian executive is spending an important volume against the Kalabagh Dam. India doesn’t desire that Pakistan ever builds this dam and saves that water which at current is absolutely wasted and which might very badly be required in the coming days. It is awfully unlucky that many politicians and feudals are on the Indian pay checklist simply to oppose this dam.
Please note; moreover irrigation, Kalabagh Dam would also generate 3600 megawatt electrical energy, which when introduced within the countrywide grid will carry down the electrical energy charge. prolong in the development of this dam is criminal on a part of the rulers, politicians and leaders, because it is their utmost duty to look after the national hobby. individuals had no hope from Asif Ali Zardari or his party, however Zia ul Haq and Pervaiz Musharaf could very handy construct it, but they additionally became greater political than the Rulers. They also lost their national interest handiest for his or her lust of vigor and to remain in seat for an extended time.
expensive readers, Let me clarify that from Gilgit to Kalabagh, what number of dams can be developed on river Indus, which have been designed by means of Wapda and requires instant consideration in addition to authoritarian step of the top of the state.
1-BUNJI HYDROPOWER venture
The proposed venture is located on Indus River 83 km from Gilgit. it's planned run of the river hydropower undertaking. this may generate of 7100 Mega Watt, in two degrees. First stage will delivery generation of 2800 megawatts and in 2d part total 7100 megawatt will beginning era.
2-BASHO HYDRO energy challenge
The proposed scheme is alongside 1 km lower stretch of Basho Lungma, a left tributary of Indus River. The confluence of Basho Lungma with Indus River is located about 40 km downstream of north-west of Skardu town and 704 km north-east of Islamabad. This Hydropower challenge can generate forty MW. Its can charge is estimated at Rs.91.243 million.
3-DIAMER BASHA DAM
The proposed challenge is observed on Indus River, about 315 km upstream of Tarbela Dam, one hundred eighty km downstream of the Gilgit-Baltistan capital Gilgit metropolis and 40 km downstream of Chilas city. The proposed RCC dam would have a maximum height of 272 m, and impound a reservoir of about 8.1 million acre ft (MAF), with reside storage of 6.4 MAF. imply annual discharge of Indus River on the web page is 1977 cusecs. The dam will impound 15% of the annual river movement. The undertaking would cowl an area of a hundred and ten square kilometres and the reservoir would prolong one hundred km upstream of the dam web page upto Raikot Bridge on Sharah e Rashem. This hydro mission can generate 4500 mega wall electricity.
4-DASU HYDROPOWER project
The proposed Dasu Hydropower task is a run of river venture on the Indus River found 7 km upstream of Dasu city, District Kohistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The site is seventy four km downstream of proposed Diamer Basha Dam site and 345 km from Islamabad. challenge will generate 5400 MW (15 devices @ 360 MW each) hydroelectric vigor. It will be achieved in two stages (Stage-I&II). Stage-i will generate 2160 MW (06 instruments @ 36 MW every) with annual power of 12,222 GWh. Stage-I can be completed in five years. The venture is being financed via the world financial institution.
5-lower SPAT GAH HYDROPOWER project
The proposed Spat Gah is the left bank tributaries of Indus River in Kohistan District, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa. The confluence of Spat Gah is located 8 km downstream of Dasu city, 35 km up stream of Patan city. The mission is observed 365 km from Islamabad and has the potential to generate 496 MW hydropower.
6-PATAN HYDROPOWER venture
The proposed Patan Dam web page is located on the Indus River about four km upstream of village Patan downstream of Keyal Khwar. The vigour condo is planned on the left bank 4 km downstream of Besham Qila and 305 km from Islamabad. This task will generate 2300 MW electricity. charge of this task is estimated at Rs. 731.233 million (2013).
7-THAKOT HYDROPOWER project
This proposed hydro task is located in a slender section of Indus river, about 3 km downstream of Besham. Distance from Islamabad is ready 240 Km. it's designed to generate 4,000 MW hydropower electrical energy. It charge is estimated at Rs. 719.628 Million (2013).
eight-TARBELA DAM The undertaking is observed at a narrow spot in the Indus River valley, at Tarbela in Haripur, presently found at the factor from where the District Swabi then begins. right here the river previously split round a huge island near the left financial institution. The leading dam wall, built of earth and rock is the realm’s greatest earth-filled dam, stretches 2,743 metres (eight,999 feet) from the island to river right, standing 148 metres (486 ft) high. A pair of concrete auxiliary dams spans the river from the island to river left. The spillways, found on the auxiliary dams, in flip consist of two elements. The leading spillway has a discharge capacity of 18,406 cubic metres per 2nd (650,000 cu toes/s) and the auxiliary spillway, 24,070 cubic metres per 2nd (850,000 cu feet/s).
Hydroelectric energy plant on the right facet of the leading dam residences 14 mills fed with water from outlet tunnels 1, 2, and three. There are four one hundred seventy five MW generators on tunnel 1, six a hundred seventy five MW turbines on tunnel 2, and 4 432 MW turbines on tunnel three, for a total producing skill of 3,478 MW. Tarbela Reservoir is eighty.5 kilometres (50.0 mi) lengthy, with a surface enviornment of 250 rectangular kilometres (ninety seven sq mi). The reservoir holds 11,600,000 acre ft (14.3 km3) of water, with a are living storage of 9,700,000 acre feet (12.0 km3).
A HIDDEN fact ABOUT TARBELLA:
It is terribly essential to note an wonderful reality: Tenders of Tarbela Dam had been opened in December 1966. the bottom tender turned into of 259 crore dollars whereas the others had been of 296 crore dollars, 366 crore bucks and 384 crore dollars. Ayub Khan’s executive selected the bottom bid, but the World bank became no longer agreed to finance that enterprise which truly changed into from Italy and had collaboration with a German company. Ayub Khan and the worried ministers had a meeting during this regard. Ayub Khan requested his finance minster Muhammad Shoaib and a civil servant Ghulam Farooq Khan to ascertain two things, one, what is the overseas standing of the enterprise and secondly, can the govt meet the overseas component from its own elements. The reply came inside forty eight hours that the company had a superb standing within the international market and that the executive of Pakistan can meet the international component from its own materials. So, the realm bank turned into informed that they don’t want their fiscal aid. It changed into a good fulfillment, in a while the world financial institution also joined and offered the monetary assist, but they began this dam with their own supplies.
This, i'm talking about those people who have been straightforward to the nation and did not be aware of the word “fee”, they used to spend the countrywide exchequer as a CUSTODIAN of the nation, they used to take country wide exchequer as “amanat” of the individuals of the country. After Ayub Khan’s regime, particularly after 1977, it’s very sad that their Governments correct from Zia regime to the existing regime, purchased every thing by means of raising the charge by double , triple and sometimes 4 instances. Zardari regime is very notorious in this regard.
a different commendable imaginative and prescient of the then rulers and an admirable fact about Tarbela Dam is that it has 5 tunnels. right now technology device is attached handiest on three tunnels, which generate 3490 megawatts. In 2013, Nawaz executive begun setting up of turbines and turbines on tunnel quantity four, which on completion will generate 1450 megawatt electrical energy, which when delivered within the national grid, will reduce the charge of electrical energy which has been terrifically raised because of thermal era.
Ghazi-Bharota Hydropower assignment is a run of the river project. Water from the river Indus enters into a canal from Ghazi and falls backs in river Indus at Bharota after going through the generation of 1450 megawatt electricity. This undertaking turned into designed by the Wapda engineers without any foreign consultancy.
The Kalabagh Dam is a proposed hydroelectric dam on the Indus River at Kalabagh within the Mianwali District of Punjab Province in Pakistan. The dam would have three,600 megawatts of electrical energy generation potential.
The Kalabagh Dam would supply 6.5 million acre feet of water to domesticate seven million acres of at present barren land apart from the 3,600 megawatts of electrical energy it will supply.
Some individuals say that Basha Dam is a exchange of Kalabagh Dam. It is terribly essential to note that Basha Dam is no substitute for Kalabagh Dam, now not on account of its altitude, which is high sufficient, however as a result of no irrigation canals will also be taken out from it because of the hilly terrain.
dear readers, from the above that you may without difficulty investigate and needless to say they are able to generate 33,350 megawatt electrical energy most effective from river Indus, double than their current requirement, which capability very inexpensive electricity and an industrial revolution. greater over they will run railway on electrical energy, so as to save a lot of foreign trade which is spent on the purchase of diesel for railway engines. all the way through Ayub Khan’s regime, an electric train was all started between Lahore and Khanewal, which after 1977 stopped working and at current number of its installations were stolen or disposed of, very sorry, it’s a country wide loss, , it’s a state of sorrow, what else i will be able to say.
FROM ABOVE which you could comfortably bear in mind THE importance AND NECESSITY OF KALABAGH-DAM.
In seventeenth and 18th Centuries, countries had wars over control of water and rivers, then in 19th Century wars have been over territorial controls. In coming days, once once again, wars could be over handle of water. Allah has talented us with loads of water which may beover and above of their needs, if we're in a position to handle it and might make use of it in a correct approach.
Kalabagh Dam is fundamental and indispensable for their country, for their building, for their irrigation device and for the future of their nation.
It’s the gold standard duty of their rulers, leaders, politicians, technocrats, bureaucrats, philosophers, journalists and also the normal public to work on it and to inform India that regardless of their intense interference, they can’t stop us from their construction. it is the responsibility of their legislators and feudals to tell them that they don't seem to be purchasable. If we're able to construct Kalabagh Dam, it could be their fantastic fulfillment and a grand victory over India.
In my next script, i'll clarify in regards to the Mangla Dam, Neelum-Jhelum hydro undertaking and all different websites the place they are able to assemble hydel power technology plant life on river Jhelum. i'll additionally deliver to the knowledge of the readers about the entire barrages and headworks on river Indus, river Jhelum, river Chenab, river Ravi and river Satluj with the linked canal equipment, which is in reality appreciable, exemplary and speaks about the imaginative and prescient of their previous rulers mainly box Marshal Ayub Khan and his team, whom they always name a dictator. and those who are unable to provide anything else to the nation are taken as massive followers of Democracy.
Democracy, which has given nothing to the nation as yet. Let’s pray this democracy and americans who're all the time speaking about it are capable of act positively and provides this nation at lease the mandatory water and electricity instead of hole slogan.
The writer is a technocrat and foreign Affairs Analyst