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Implementation of High Availability Solutions for UNIX (VCS 4.0) test
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community Design ideas

This chapter, from Upgrading and Repairing Networks, 5e, looks at the network's logical and physical design to assist your planning when creating a new network.

This chapter is from the publication 

Many types of networks were discussed in Chapter 1, "a short background of computer Networking," from ARPANET to TCP/IP. And in Chapter 2, "Overview of community Topologies," you discovered about the various topologies that you could make use of when designing and creating a native area community (LAN), and they additionally checked out some situations through which a number of networks have been related to form a large area community (WAN). during this chapter, they will study yet another point of creating a network: the community's logical and actual design. The physical facets of your LAN will rely upon the underlying physical transport technology—Ethernet or Token-Ring, for instance, or probably ATM, which is supported as a LAN protocol in items akin to windows 2000/XP, home windows Server 2003, and Linux. depending on which know-how you utilize, there should be one or more LAN topologies from which to opt for.

before that you would be able to start to design a physical network, although, you first have to verify your wants. What features have to you provide to your user group? What are the materials you are going to want? in case you should compromise, what's going to it take to fulfill essentially the most clients or to deliver the more crucial functions? then you definitely will must keep in mind community protocols, applications, network pace, and, most vital, network safety issues; each of these figures right into a community's logical design. another essential ingredient your administration will likely drive you to believe is can charge—you can't forget the funds. These factors make up the logical design in your network. You first should still decide what you need and what it will take to give for these needs.

if you are growing a new network and buying new applications, you will doubtless spend most of your time on the grounds that the licensing and different monetary fees (practicing users, network personnel, etc). if you're upgrading older applications, a number of different components come into consideration. Many purposes that had been coded the usage of COBOL, basic, FORTRAN, and other languages that helped jumpstart the desktop age may have developed-in community functionality in accordance with older proprietary network protocols. If this is the case together with your network, you should trust several issues. what's going to it charge to replace thousands of strains of code (or greater) to greater contemporary types of the same programming language? what will it cost to improve these classes to more recent object-oriented languages? To retailer money, are you able to improve part of your network and use gateway hardware/application to connect with older network add-ons?

on account of the charges linked to coding purposes that have been created many years in the past, and the fees that might be required to replace them to up to date programming languages, you can be forced to retain legacy applications for a few years while substitute applications are designed and created. You may additionally discover a packaged software that can also be used to change older classes. This problem will observe frequently to proprietary laptop architectures, as an alternative of home windows or Unix structures. in case you can easily make minor adjustments and assemble the supply code so that they can run on a more moderen operating device, your costs might be plenty below in case you must re-create the functions your users need from scratch. an additional cost associated with upgrading to new courses is working towards users and support-desk personnel.

if you happen to plan a logical network design, that you would be able to start from one in all two areas. you can design and deploy a brand new community from scratch, or you can upgrade an existing community. both means, be sure to gather assistance about a couple of vital components earlier than you begin the logical design. as an instance, counting on the features that should be provided to purchasers, you could deserve to analyze the possible site visitors patterns that might outcome from your plan. find capabilities bottlenecks and, the place possible, alleviate them via featuring dissimilar paths to supplies or by way of putting up servers that provide replicas of crucial data in order that load balancing will also be provided. right here are different elements to trust:

  • who are the purchasers? What are their actual wants? How have you ever determined these wants—from user complaints or from support-desk facts? is that this records official?
  • What forms of functions will you supply on the community? Are they limited in scope? Will any involve configuring a firewall between LANs? And in that case, that nevertheless doesn't account for configuring a firewall to enable access to the cyber web.
  • Will you deserve to enable a web connection for simply your inside community's users, or will use you should allow backyard providers entry to your community? One illustration that comes to mind is the web Printing Protocol (see Chapter 24, "Overview of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite"). what's going to it can charge to consider what form of capabilities consumer companies deserve to entry from the web? Will you need to enable all clients to make use of email—both inside the interior community and through the firewall on the web? The same goes for what sites users may be allowed to access the use of a network browser and different community functions. Will you have got clients who make money working from home and require dial-in or VPN access throughout the cyber web?
  • Can your users tolerate a bit downtime now and then due to community issues, or is it indispensable to deliver a high-availability community? Will you need clustered servers to supply for a excessive degree of uptime, or do your clients' applications no longer endure from a brief lack of using a server? To give for optimum uptime, are you able to afford to build redundancy into your network? as an instance, Chapter 2 discusses redundant topologies that will also be used to stay away from a single point of failure from making the network (and its substances) unavailable. Chapter 11, "network connected Storage and Storage area Networks," describes strategies that you would be able to use to reflect facts at geographically distant areas.
  • In an latest network, will you hold the latest protocol or improve to a different protocol regular? if you create a network from scratch, what components should affect your network protocol decision? Ethernet is essentially the most prevalent LAN expertise on the planet these days. TCP/IP is essentially the most frequent protocol suite that runs on Ethernet. Yet there are circumstances wherein different technologies have their niches. agree with the implications (equivalent to guide costs and protection) to retain older, proprietary protocols.
  • who're Your purchasers?

    This appears like a extremely basic question. despite the fact, i am no longer asserting, "What are your purchasers' names and how smartly were you aware their infants?" i am referring as an alternative to your advantage of the job descriptions for the users on the network. You need to check work patterns for numerous departments so so that you can accurately region servers, excessive-bandwidth hyperlinks, and other such things within the acceptable actual vicinity of the community. If many of the network site visitors you are expecting to see will come from the engineering branch, you will need to provide that branch with a huge statistics pipe. In Chapter 4, "Upgrading suggestions and challenge administration," you are going to discover greater tips about surveying the user neighborhood to get a hold of a plan that locations supplies the place they are mandatory.

    What styles of features or applications Will the network offer?

    Of route, everyone knows that the most essential feature of a network nowadays is to support multiuser gaming. severely, though, you should make an inventory of the styles of applications currently in use, in addition to a list of these requested by way of clients. each utility should still have a written chance assessment document that points out skills protection issues, if any. typical community functions these days consist of FTP, telnet, and, of path, searching the internet. There are "comfy" types of these functions and there are types that go away a door extensive open into your network. whatever listing of purposes you chose to aid over the community, bear in mind two things:

  • Is the software protected? Most applications today come in at ease types or may also be used with a proxy server to support lower the possibility of abuse. Yet, as all of us have seen, even the largest corporations are pursuits now and then, and those corporations have the staff that may still be in a position to evade these things from occurring. as a result of proxy servers are an important component of firewalls, this discipline is covered in stronger aspect in Chapter forty five. if you want a comfortable community, here's enormously suggested analyzing!
  • Does one utility overlap one more? every person has his or her favourite utility. Some individuals like one word processor, whereas others decide on a special one. however when coping with functions or utility suites (comparable to Microsoft workplace), you will find it better to make a call and persist with a single product if it could actually satisfy the needs of your clients. They may not like it, and practising might possibly be fundamental, however assisting dissimilar functions that do the identical aspect wastes funds and leads to confusion.
  • A often overlooked formulation for getting records info out of a network and onto the internet is to with ease send the data as an attachment to an e mail. So in case you feel you could have blocked file transfers via disabling FTP access in the course of the firewall, this example should show that you in reality do deserve to do a thorough contrast of any new utility or carrier you'll enable on the community. New functions may still be justified with facts that demonstrate why they are essential. If an latest utility may also be used to achieve the same aim, why do you need a different application? in the event you retire the older application and use a newer one? Pay attention to the details. and do not overlook to examine new purposes to make sure that they operate as anticipated. The equal goes for older functions—will they work on the new or upgraded network?

    ultimately, do you video display network usage? Do you want to enable users to spend their days searching the net, or checking very own electronic mail while at work? Many businesses have guidelines that apply to using the mobilephone for private enterprise. Do you miss out on this circumstance when giving clients email ability? Are you combating access to sites which are without doubt not enterprise-connected?

    What degree of Reliability Do I Require for each community hyperlink?

    simply how a great deal downtime is appropriate? for many clients, the reply would be zero. essential add-ons of your network, comparable to file servers, should still have fault tolerance inbuilt from the backside up. In giant servers, you are going to discover dual-redundant vigor materials (each linked to a separate UPS), and disk arrays install using RAID strategies to provide for information integrity in the event that a disk goes south. If a hyperlink between two workplaces has to be up a hundred% of the time, remember to plan for varied hyperlinks between the two sites to give a backup means. during this case, you can also justify the charge of the extra hyperlink through the use of load balancing in order that network response time is better. And, when you are the usage of diverse links to far off sites, it's at all times a good idea to have more than a single direction to the site. At one web site this author labored at, there were redundant energy lines bringing electrical energy into the web site—facet-by using-side. If a tree falls, will it carry down one or both of these vigor strains?

    an additional expertise that will also be used to supply an extra layer of redundancy, in addition to excessive-velocity access to storage gadgets, is the Storage enviornment network (SAN). A SAN is a network it's separate from the LAN and carries most effective storage gadgets and servers that should access those devices. since the community bandwidth isn't shared with LAN clients, dissimilar servers can access the same storage. If one server fails, other servers may also be configured to deliver redundant access to the records. additionally, the identical RAID and other redundancy recommendations used for storage gadgets that are directly connected to a server (such because the SCSI hardware and protocols) will also be used on a SAN.

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    The terms RAID and americaare vital in trendy networks, as is the conception of load balancing and dual-redundant energy substances in enormous networks. which you could discover extra about RAID (Redundant Array Of independent Disks) and u.s.a. (uninterruptible power elements) through studying Chapter 5, "conserving the community: Preventative renovation concepts." For extra tips about SANs, see Chapter 11.

    The old saying "If it ain't broke, do not repair it" does not practice to networks. you should at all times be proactively attempting to find talents single facets of failure and doing anything to fix them. by means of constructing redundancy into the network design at the beginning, you're going to keep yourself a lot of grief in the future.

    Chapter 5 can give you extra suggestions about using clustering, backups, uninterruptible energy materials, and other recommendations that may hold the community up and running.

    picking a LAN Protocol

    nowadays the de facto protocol of choice needs to be TCP/IP. besides the fact that children, other protocols have their region in some vertical markets. in this publication, they talk about NetWare. NetWare has been round so lengthy that you simply may discover you don't have any alternative when designing an upgrade but to keep the usage of IPX/SPX, depending on the purposes your network uses. despite the fact, even NetWare has moved toward using TCP/IP because the underlying protocol. this is in reality the case for edition 5.x and 6.x of NetWare. Older NetWare networks should improve, if feasible, to at least one of those newer models. in case you might be connecting the network to the information superhighway, TCP/IP might be a necessity. besides the fact that you don't expect to have an internet connection, you're going to locate that determining TCP/IP is a greater useful alternative nowadays because most purposes work with it and there's a big market of expert specialists who may also be hired to manipulate a network developed on TCP/IP. NetWare 6.x provides backward compatibility with IPX/SPX for essentially the most half, but more moderen aspects such as the iPrint—which uses the web Printing Protocol—require TCP/IP.

    besides transport protocols comparable to TCP/IP and IPX/SPX, you ought to believe utility protocols that will also be used on the network. for instance, to simplify administering configuration assistance for a big variety of computer systems, you could need to use the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), which is discussed in Chapter 28, "BOOTP and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)." if you wish to give a significant identify resolution provider, you could opt for the domain identify provider (DNS), which is lined in Chapter 29, "network name decision." if you're going to operate a windows network that has pre–home windows 2000/XP valued clientele, you may need to use the home windows web Naming carrier (WINS) for backward compatibility.

    So when thinking a couple of community protocol, bear in mind that or not it's no longer only 1 protocol you need to fret about. After you have got determined which protocols are integral, analysis the safety implications of every.

    it's essentially well-known: TCP/IP

    For all practical purposes, the usual LAN protocol these days is TCP/IP. this is partly because of the rapid growth of the internet, and the need of most agencies of getting an internet presence, as well because the huge number of companies that have adopted this protocol suite. if your LAN remains using an older proprietary network protocol, be sure to severely accept as true with what it might take to improve to TCP/IP. presently, TCP/IP edition four is essentially the most universal protocol. in the future that you could predict that the next edition (IPv6) will start to find its manner from the core of the cyber web out to the part, where your network resides. whereas technologies such as network tackle Translation (NAT) are greatly employed to treatment the difficulty associated with the constrained tackle area supplied by way of IPv4, IPv6 will permit a plenty bigger tackle area. combine that with network handle Translation, and the long-time period bets are going to be on IPv6, or possibly one of the crucial points that are part of IPv6. apart from supplying you with a larger tackle house, IPv6 comprises other crucial elements. these which will affect your network probably the most are security mechanisms, with a view to best turn into extra crucial as internet commerce continues to grow.

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    For an in depth introduction to TCP/IP, see Chapter 24, "Overview of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite"; Chapter 25, "primary TCP/IP services and functions"; and Chapter 27, "Troubleshooting equipment for TCP/IP Networks."

    there is one very important cause you'll want to trust TCP/IP as a LAN protocol: There are greater knowledgeable professionals knowledgeable in TCP/IP than some other LAN protocol at the present. it's entertaining to observe that in windows NT 3.fifty one, the default network protocol changed into Microsoft's implementation of IPX/SPX (NWLink). In home windows NT 4.0 (and successive working techniques, from windows 2000, XP, and Server 2003), the default community protocol is TCP/IP.

    if your network consists of a few working methods, from windows to NetWare to Unix and Linux, then the final analysis is that TCP/IP is the bottom general denominator for you to allow the easiest connectivity and interplay between all of those. Even Microsoft's now-legacy NetBIOS/NetBEUI protocols had been tailored to run over TCP/IP.

    Novell's NetWare version 6.5

    NetWare changed into most likely the primary attempt at significantly featuring a LAN protocol that turned into handy to use. The fundamental file and print capabilities offered by using early types of NetWare had been a good deal stronger than different options purchasable at the moment. After it grew to be centered within the company group, NetWare grew to be the network solution of alternative in lots of company environments that used the laptop. Microsoft countered this success with its LANManager items, which were additionally marketed via other carriers in their own method, such because the Pathworks solution from Digital gadget employer.

    today NetWare is a totally revamped answer to LAN connectivity. It provides many new facets that are addressed to peculiarly make use of the web, and enable cell users to hook up with their home networks, as well as to enable NetWare clients to make connections to outside networks. for instance, the iPrint characteristic makes it possible for NetWare users to print to a printer on a far off community. for example, as an alternative of sending a catalog that can be obsolete in a month or so, which you can use iPrint to periodically ship selected information principal to each client, by way of printing it at once to the consumer's printer.

    And NetWare's iFolder makes it possible for cellular clients to synchronize records saved on faraway computer systems (such as a desktop computing device) with the information kept on the enterprise's network. Microsoft and other providers present identical facets. although, the element to remember is that if you already are a NetWare consumer, you should not have to throw out your present funding and circulation to a Microsoft community, or perhaps a Unix/Linux atmosphere. NetWare has modified because the market has modified, and also you might find it less high priced to upgrade to NetWare 6.5 than to migrate to an additional platform. The final analysis contains not simply the charge of migrating to yet another working gadget, however the prices concerned with retraining your community administrative personnel in new know-how.

    as a result of NetWare 6.5 is so tightly built-in with the IP protocol, and additionally offers backward compatibility with IPX/SPX, admins for existing NetWare networks should still trust upgrading to NetWare 6.5 as well as in view that different alternatives.

    in case you are looking to stream to Linux, Novell makes it convenient with the aid of incorporating an superior edition of NetWare 6.5 and SuSE Linux into its Novell Open enterprise Server. Open business Server supports each Linux and NetWare-particular utility and features, enabling you to circulate to Linux progressively.

    other LAN/WAN Protocols

    The difference between LAN and WAN (extensive area networking) protocols is beginning to blur. Ethernet turned into once considered to be a LAN protocol. As time has passed, other applied sciences, such as Token-Ring, have turn into minor avid gamers within the LAN world. Yet the opposite is correct of Ethernet. It has grown from a modest specification recommended by using Intel, DEC, and different carriers, such that it now will also be considered a WAN protocol. The capabilities delivered by using present LAN applied sciences are beginning to erode the alterations between a LAN and a man (metropolitan area community). When the fourth version of this booklet was published, Gigabit Ethernet turned into starting to fall into the low-cost range of network topologies. That fashion has continued and now 10Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE) is commonly getting used in business information facilities. nowadays you may well be the usage of 100BASE-T for connecting customer computer systems to the community, and Gigabit Ethernet to join community segments by way of the community spine. In some cases your community might even be completely based on 10GbE.

    What does this suggest to a network administrator nowadays? With 10Gigabit Ethernet, you could use TCP/IP no longer most effective to create a local area community backbone, however to prolong that reach to a metropolitan area network. and because TCP/IP is so intertwined with Ethernet, you could obtain an end-to-conclusion MAN link that makes use of TCP/IP over quicker Ethernet connections. in its place of employing greater expensive options, corresponding to SONET, that you could now connect department offices in the equal geographical enviornment using just TCP/IP.

    You may additionally no longer must be troubled about installation costly gadget used by using SONET and different regular MAN protocols. still, for the lengthy haul—for instance, between different cities—different protocols reminiscent of ATM and body Relay will come into play.

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    For more tips about SONET, ATM, and body Relay, see Chapter 15, "dedicated Connections."


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